The shiny, modern glass building is a landscape of a big city. Who created the facade of the building?
Whimsical people are actually the most creative people. The original meaning of the window is the "hole on the wall." In 1919, some people wanted to expand the glass window indefinitely and even replace the entire wall.
This person is the German architect Mies van der Rohe, who was one of the four most famous modern architectural masters in the world in the mid-20th century.
In 1921, Mies modeled his whimsical ideas - the exterior walls of the entire building were made of glass, called "glass buildings." He declared that he would combine the window with the wall, and the glass exterior would be both a transparent window and a solid wall.
Mies's "Glass Building" was just a vision. In 1976, the famous Chinese-American architect Peter Pei made the idea of Mies into reality. He built a 60-story Hancock Building in Boston, which is a glass exterior. Skyscrapers.
This novel building with a transparent body and a mirror-like exterior is one of the brightest things in the world. It suddenly caused a sensation in the United States and caused a sensation in the world.
The glass facade is known as the glass curtain wall, and Mies is known as the "father of the glass curtain wall."
However, the good times did not last long and the applause for the Hancock Building soon became a criticism. The glass curtain wall of the building has used a total of 10,344 pieces of glass, which is 1.4 meters by 3.5 meters in length. It was only three years before the scene broke more than 2,000 pieces! Beautiful tall buildings are full of holes.
This is because the strength of those glasses is not enough, and the strength of the steel frame supporting the glass is not enough. After five years of renovation, the Hancock Building was not easy to cure the "scars" on the external walls.
In recent decades, after continuous improvement, the quality of glass curtain walls has been significantly improved:
After tempering treatment (heat treatment), the impact strength of the glass is increased by 3 to 5 times than that of ordinary glass, and even if it is broken, it is only broken into small pieces of glass with no sharp corners.
Making the curtain wall glass double (or even three layers), with dry air or inert gas between the two glass sheets, can greatly improve the insulation, heat insulation, and sound insulation properties.
According to measurements, when the outdoor temperature is -10°C, the temperature in front of the single-layered glass window is -2°C, while the room temperature in which the triple-layered insulating glass is used is 13°C.
It should be emphasized that the air filled in the hollow glass must be dry, which is to prevent the condensation of water vapor in the inner layer in the winter, affecting the transparency.
The glass is coated with two very thin silver films. This "double silver glass" can transmit visible light well, but it reflects off the sun's thermal radiation (infrared rays). In the hot summer, double-double-silver insulating glass can transmit 90% of visible light and block 90% of the solar radiant heat.
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